How U tubes is used for Experiments?

U tubes

The U tubes heat exchanger is a type of tube and shell heat exchanger that is used in the petroleum and chemical industries. The ‘U-shaped tube gives this type of heat exchanger its name. The tube box, shell, and tube buddle are the primary components of a U tubes heat exchanger. Furthermore, following the hydro test of the U tubes heat exchanger, it is simple to dry. A manometer is a pressure measuring instrument. A basic manometer is made out of a U-shaped glass tube filled with liquid. Because of its high density, mercury is usually the liquid of choice.

Unless specified, the term “manometer” usually refers to a U-shaped tube that is partially filled with fluid. This type of manometer is simple to construct and can be used in a laboratory experiment to demonstrate the effect of air pressure on a liquid column.

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What is U-tubes Manometer?

The manometer is in the shape of a U, with one end exposed to the atmosphere. It’s use to figure out how much suction there is. Both positive and negative suction pressures may be measure using it. The suction pressure is measure using the idea of specific gravities. A liquid with a specific gravity larger than that of the fluid whose suction pressure is to be measured is used in this sort of manometer. It is made up of a U-shaped bend with one end connected to the gauge point ‘A’ and the other open to the atmosphere. And it  can detect positive (suction) as well as negative (suction) pressures. It contains a liquid with a higher specific gravity than the liquid whose pressure is to be measured.

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U tubes Manometer construction

The simplest pressure measurement instrument is a U-tube manometer.  This manometer is make out of a U-shaped tube that holds the manometer liquid. The manometer is use to measure pressure that is unknown owing to the balance gravity force and gravity acceleration, g = 9.81 m/sec2.Steel, brass, and aluminum are use to make the manometer. It is compose of pyralex glass and features a glass tube. Graduations are make on the tube in terms of millimetres or, in certain cases, kilo Pascals.The U-tube Manometer’s Operation.

The mercury in the tube or the manometer liquid pour in the tube moves in the tube or rises to the constant area, and then the movement is halt. Two flexible tubings are use to make pressure taps. As indicate in the diagram below, pressures p1 and p2 operate on the seal walls and spin the ring, which is balance by the counter weight w.

Differential U Tubes Manometer

Let’s look at the connecting pipes of the U tube manometer one by one to check if they’re at the same level or at a different level. The differential manometer is use to determine or measure the pressure difference between two locations in a pipe or in a separate pipe whenever we need to determine the difference of pressure between two sites in a pipe or in a different pipe. Although this gadget is not technically a manometer, it is frequently refer to as one. Polythene or another light and transparent substance is use to make the tube.

Construction of differential manometer

Differential manometer consists of a u tube fill with monomeric fluid with both ends attach to the locations to be measure. After connecting both ends of the differential manometer to the points of the pipe where the pressure difference is to measure, the heavy liquid/monomeric fluid moves and after reaching equilibrium, we get the pressure head “h” and can calculate the pressure difference between the points using the hydrostatic law and the balancing the column method. This tube is bend into the shape of a ring, with an appropriate pivot supporting it in the center. For separating the two pressures, the tubular chamber is separate into two halves by spilling, sealing, and filling with a suitable light liquid such as kerosene or paraffin oil.

Inverted U tubes Manometer

When measuring pressure differences in liquids, an inverted U-tube manometer is utilize. The area above the liquid in the manometer is fill with air that may enter or eject through the top tap to alter the liquid level in the manometer. The U-tube of this type of manometer is invert and fill with a light liquid. The tube’s two ends are attach to the spots where the pressure difference will be measure. It’s use to determine the difference between two low pressures. An invert U-tube with a differential manometer attach to points A and B is show in the diagram. Assume that the pressure at point A is greater than that at point B.

Small U tubes manometer

A micro-manometer is a type of liquid column manometer that works on the same principles as an inclined tube manometer. It is use to measure extremely small pressure differences or extremely low pressure variations. Micro-manometer may  define as a modify type of simple manometer with one limb made up of a bigger cross-sectional area. It has a great degree of precision in detecting low-pressure fluctuations.

Inclined U tubes Manometer

An angle manometer is used measure very small pressures and is far more precise than a vertical tube type manometer. Because of the inclination, the gap impacted by the liquid in the manometer is much larger. Graduations may see  at the center of the tube. According to the manometer’s maker, the graduations are usually hundredths of an inch.

Principle of U tubes manometer

The manometer’s premise is that the pressure to measure is apply to one side of the tube, causing liquid to flow, as indicate in the diagram above. The filling liquid level in the leg where the pressure is apply, i.e. the left leg of the tube, has fall, whilst it has increase in the right hand leg. Between the tubes is a scale that allows us to measure the displacement.

Assume that the pressure we’re sensing and applying to the manometer’s left side is constant. Only until the pressure imposed by the liquid column, H, is adequate to balance the liquid will it cease flowing. Only until the pressure exert the liquid column H is sufficient to balance. The pressure supply is to the left side of the manometer. When the head pressure generate column “H” equals the pressure to measure, will the liquid cease flowing?



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